79 Article 179 establishes a prison sentence of six months to a year for any person who, by virtue of his/her state or office , employment, profession, or art, has knowledge of a secret whose divulgement might cause harm to another and reveals. 65 Rebecca Morla, Correas Social-Media Troll Center Exposed in Quito, March 25, 2015, /1N9vv2f. During the coverage period, social media competition between pro-government supporters and the opposition escalated, with both government supports and critics issuing threats against one another, 105 and with least one individual receiving death threats at his home after the president. Although the penal code eliminates some charges for defamation, it retains several provisions that limit freedom of expression. Ecuador: Usuarios digitales pronuncian por la libertad de la expresin en internet, in Spanish February 5, 2015, /1QTCttS. 18 CNT, National Corporation of Telecommunications, Internet Plans and Services, 2015, /1GxG6yZ; Bryan Haines, Internet in Ecuador: 2013 Speed Update, Gringos Abroad (blog May 18, 2013, /1OL7nFw. 11, the Inter-American Development Bank rates Ecuador 9th out of 26 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean in terms of broadband penetration, although it falls behind many of its neighbors in South America. 47 Simeon Tegel, Is Ecuadors anti-imperialist president using US copyright law to censor online critics, Global Post, January 23, 2015, /1B8GdAu; See also Twitter suspende cuenta de Diana Amores, otra vez Twitter Suspends Diana Amoress Account, Again La Repblica.
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16 Mercedes Alvaro, Ecuador Signs 4G Contracts With America Movil, Telefonica, The Wall Street Journal, February 18, 2015, m/1DsXlo9. After the president appeared to encourage followers to dox anonymous online critics, exposing their identifying information to facilitate harassment, several internet freedom organizations drafted and signed the Manifesto for the Freedom of Expression, Anonymity, and Online Privacy in Ecuador. 15, in February 2015, Claro, owned by Am?rica Mvil, and Movistar, owned by Telefnica, reached an agreement with the government that would allow them to use radio-electric spectrum to expand 4G services in exchange for paying the Ecuadorian government. 51 Fundamedios, Dos Aos de la Ley de Comunicacin: Las cifras más allá de la propaganda oficial, Two Years of the Communications Law: The stats beyond the official propaganda, news reléase, June 24, 2015, /1QtidhT. 51 Fines on newspapers forex humor caricaturas for violations of the Communications Law, and the associated legal battles, may sap resources from independent media outlets. News outlets that have allowed readers to post comments critical of the Correa administration on the comments sections of their websites have faced removal requests, and many newspapers have closed their comments section entirely. The most notable case occurred in January 2015 when President Correa criticized three social media users in his weekly presidential address. 116 In January 2014, political activist, filmmaker, and writer Carlos Andrés Vera, who owns the popular blog Polificcion, was targeted on Twitter. Para censurer contenidos crticos al regimen de Correa, in Spanish PanAm Post, October 9, 2014, /1iszpkr ; Cristina Luis, Periodistas en Latinoamérica: riesgo y lucha contra el poder, in Spanish El Mundo, December 12, 2014, /12K86D2. 121 Fundamedios, Página web de Fundamedios es vctima de ataque cibernético.
Although it eliminates criminal charges for insult, it retains criminal charges for slander and libel, as well as restrictions on social protests and privacy protections that some critics worry may limit investigative reporting and whistleblowing. 13 A June 2012 ruling (No. The Twitter forex humor caricaturas account Anonymous Ecuador has begun identifying pro-government supporters and encouraging its followers to send a greeting to this Correa supporter, often unleashing a flurry of criticisms as well as violent attacks. Freedom on the Net, you are here, home ». In his weekly televised presidential address in January 2015, President Rafael Correa identified social media accounts that had used Twitter or Facebook to criticize or insult him and called for his followers to criticize these users online. 45 Simeon Tegel, Is Ecuadors anti-imperialist president using US copyright law to censor online critics, Global Post, January 23, 2015, See also: Tech Dirt, Ecuador Using Copyright to Try to Take Down Leaked Documents About its Surveillance Practices. This economic impact on private media may be exacerbated by the fact that some companies appear reluctant to advertise in media that is critical of the government. 73 Juan Arellano, Ecuadorian Activists Say No to Cybercafe Surveillance, trans. Under the law, the media is also not allowed to cover the election during the two days before the election begins and on election day itself. 28 ICT Market Ecuador has approximately 22 internet service providers (ISPs). The cartoon, which went viral, was posted and retweeted on social media thousands of times before Bonil and El Universo were charged with violating provisions of the 2013 Communications Law. 41 Reforms to Ecuadors electoral law in 2012 also have the potential to affect speech.
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56 Committee to Protect Journalists, Ecuador issues sanctions for cartoon mocking congressman, February 23, 2015, http cpj. Catalogos Team Slot Vintage. 66 In April 2015, the Ministry of Telecommunications ruled that mobile internet providers could not limit calls on WhatsApp, after several mobile providers had proposed limiting this service in certain plans. 100 Ecuadors legal framework provides the government with broad authority to request user information without judicial oversight. 29 Ecuador is home to three mobile internet service providers: one state-run operator, CNT, and two private providers, Claro and Movistar. 68 By summer of 2015, protests over these issues, as well as proposed tax increases, gathered steam, and a series of mobilizations brought thousands of people into the streets. 50 Teresa Mioli, Sanciones contra medios independientes continan en Ecuador luego de dos aos de la Supercom, Sanctions against independent media continue in Ecuador after two years of Supercom, Blog Periodismo en las Americas, Knight Center at The University. 37 In addition to saddling website owners with ultimate responsibility for all hosted content, prescribing arbitrary sanctions on media for unbalanced reporting, and banning media lynchingan accusation often applied to investigative reporting in Ecuador 38 the Communications Law also grants. 19, although a digital divide exists between rural and urban areas, Ecuador has shown improvement in extending internet access to rural areas over the past two years through programs facilitated by the Ministry of Telecommunications (mintel). 22 The Ministry of Education is building 271 mobile classrooms in Guayaquil, Ecuador Times, March 24, 2015, /1hhvSNF. 75 More than 16,000 users participated in the creation of this legal code, which underwent more than 40,000 text edits. In May 2014, the government detained two teenage boys on charges of hacking the presidents Twitter account; however, they were released the following morning due to lack of evidence. Ecuadors state-run Infocentroscommunity centers with network access that began to be installed in June 2012have trained more than 185,000 people in the use of digital technology, according to the Ministry of Telecommunications.
98 Rosie Gray and Adrian Carrasquillo, Exclusive: Documents Illuminate Ecuadors Spying Practices, Buzzfeed, June 25, 2013, /1FYaind. 20 They offer internet access in 491 parish communities, and also provide equipment to 7,541 students throughout the country. 40 In practice, Supercom has not aggressively pursued digital media under the Communications Law; however, fines and corrections targeting print media may also affect the online edition of the publication in question. Although the law has not been used to target or fine exclusively digital media outlets, Article 3 of the law expands the regulators control to all media with an online presence. The fiber-optic cable represents part of a larger advance in infrastructure improvements in Ecuador: the country has expanded from 3,500 km of fiber-optic cable in 2006 to 45,000 km in March 2015. 115 In November 2014, unknown individuals entered the offices of the digital and print media organization Cotopaxi Noticias and stole six computers. This is consistent with previous telecommunications regulations. 38 Gina Yauri, Ecuador Passes Controversial Communications Law, trans.
9, the Ecuadorian government provided alternate statistics for internet penetration in March 2015, claiming that 41 percent of the population has internet subscriptions but that over 87 percent are internet users. In February 2015, Congress passed and the president signed the Organic Law on Telecommunications. 62 Although the Somos Mas initiative ultimately failed forex humor caricaturas to catch on and gather the army of hoped-for supporters, the direct involvement of the executive in implicitly encouraging harassment and attacks on anonymity is concerning. Ecuador, key Developments: june 2014 - MAY 2015, in January 2015, President Correa launched a Twitter campaign against his online critics, encouraging his supporters to find and release personal information about anonymous users who criticized the government online. Beyond the Hacking Team leaks, there is some evidence that the Ecuadorian government has also invested in the purchase of other surveillance systems. 70 Earlier in the year, social media users and internet freedom organizations also rallied to defend social media users targeted by the president and government supporters. Authorities can use this software to build up a library of voiceprints of criminals or other individuals and then use it to identify individuals in intercepted calls.
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71 Agencia de Noticias Medio a Medio. Legislation introduced to Ecuadors National Assembly in June 2014 would create a constitutional amendment to classify communications as a public service. Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, Ecuadors Sensitive President, video, 4:11, February 9, 2015, m/watch? 66 For example, one digital rights activist has raised concerns about Article 22 of the law, which allows providers toestablish tariff plans consisting of one or more services or products of one or more services. 52 John Otis, Ecuadors year-old media law stifles in-depth reporting, The Committee to Protect Journalists (blog June 24, 2014, http cpj. 93 AP, Correction: Ecuador-Hacking The Opposition Story. Intimidation and Violence Although levels of harassment and violent threats against journalists did not reach the same levels in Ecuador as in other countries in the region, the direct involvement of the president in inciting social media battles, with little. 11 International Telecommunication Union, Individuals Using the Internet. 61 Critics argued that this website would encourage followers to reveal private information about anonymous social media users and would unleash thousands forex humor caricaturas of trolls to harass government critics. This freely accessible site allowed citizens of Ecuador and other nations to propose changes to the Organic Code for Social Economy of Knowledge and Innovation, with the goal of designing a framework for the inclusive and democratic development of an open knowledge society. 37 Committee to Protect Journalists, CPJ dismayed by approval of media law in Ecuador, press statement, June 14, 2013, http cpj. 24 According to article 8 of the law, in case of aggression, armed international or internal conflict, grave internal commotion, public calamity, natural disaster, or national, regional, or local emergency, when the President issues an Executive Decree. The presidents statements contributed to an environment of harassment, in which multiple social media users faced online and offline threats.
Inscripciones II Open Slot Acentejo. Regulatory Bodies and Media, Diversity, and Online Content ). R5, N4, R3,. 34 The telecommunications law also sets up mechanisms that strengthen the institutional structure and processes of regulation and unification of the regime of telecommunications, including radio and television. Grupo TvCable (Suratel) and Claro (Ecuadortelecom) control the next biggest shares of fixed line access, with 12 percent and 9 percent respectively. The Russian company Speech Technology Center alleged in international media reports that Ecuador installed the worlds first biometric surveillance system with voice and facial identification capabilities. Samuel Woolley, #HackingTeam Leaks: Ecuador is Spending Millions on Malware, Pro-Government Trolls, GlobalVoices, August 4, 2015, /1LIus6z. Ecuador also began producing high-end mobile phones with 4G capacity in 2014 after the government eased restrictions on importing certain phone parts. According to the edict, the limitation is predicated on preventing further environmental degradation resulting from residual mobile phone waste.